Unstable Angina: Overview and More
Also known as Angina PectorisAcute Coronary SyndromeMicrovascular AnginaPrinzmetal’s AnginaStable AnginaUnstable AnginaVariant AnginaVasospastic AnginaCardiac Syndrome X
Angina Pectoris is chest pain or discomfort that occurs if an area of your heart muscle does not get enough oxygen-rich blood. It is a common symptom of ischemic heart disease, which limits or cuts off blood flow to the heart.

There are several types of angina, and the signs and symptoms depend on which type you have. Angina chest pain, called an angina event, can happen when your heart is working hard. It can go away when you stop to rest again, or it can happen at rest. This pain can feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. It also can spread to your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back, just like a heart attack. Angina pain can even feel like an upset stomach. Symptoms can be different for women and men.

Angina can be a warning sign that you are at increased risk for a heart attack. If you have chest pain that does not go away, call 9-1-1 immediately.

To diagnose angina, your doctor will ask you about your signs and symptoms and may run blood tests, take an X-ray, or order tests, such as an electrocardiogram (EKG), an exercise stress test, or cardiac catheterization, to determine how well your heart is working. With some types of angina, you may need emergency medical treatment to try to prevent a heart attack. To control your condition, your doctor may recommend heart-healthy lifestyle changes, medicines, medical procedures, and cardiac rehabilitation.

Explore this Health Topic to learn more about angina, our role in research and clinical trials to improve health, and where to find more information.

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Diagnosis of seizure To detect brain abnormalities

Chromosomal Abnormalities in Pregnancy
To detect brain abnormalities and identify the origin of seizure (epileptogenic lesion), tests may include:
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG). It is the most common test used to diagnose epilepsy. During the test, electrodes are attached to the scalp with a paste-like substance or cap for 20-30 minutes. The electrodes record the electrical activity of the brain and identify seizure focus which is the site in the brain from which the seizure originated with abnormal electrical impulses.
  • Video EEG Monitoring (VEM). EEG-video monitoring refers to continuous EEG recorded for a more or less prolonged period with simultaneous video recording during the clinical manifestations of seizure while patient is hospitalized. Having a correlation of the recorded patient’s behavior as video and the EEG activity, the site that originates seizure can be pinpointed more precisely, compared to EEG.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By using powerful magnets and radio waves to create detailed images of the brain, MRI is used to detect lesions or abnormalities in the brain that could be particular causes of seizure such as small brain tumor, congenital brain tumor and scar tissue.
  • Functional MRI (fMRI). A functional MRI measures the changes in blood flow that occur when specific parts of the brain are working. fMRI is usually used before surgery to identify the exact locations of critical functions such as movement and speech. Therefore neurosurgeons can avoid injuring those areas while operating.
  • Interictal SPECT (Single-photon emission computerized tomography). This test is used primarily if MRI and EEG failed to pinpoint the location of seizure. It is normally used to identify seizure focus when the patient is seizure-free for at least 24 hours.
  • Ictal SPECT (Single-photon emission computerized tomography). It is used to pinpoint seizure focus while patient is undergone 24-hour video EEG monitoring. This test uses a small amount of low-dose radioactive material to inject into a vein to create a detailed map of the blood flow activity in the brain during seizures.The radioactive substance will be trapped in the position of seizures.
  • Interictal PET (Positron emission tomography). PET scans use a small amount of low-dose radioactive substance injected into a vein to visualize active areas of the brain and detect abnormalities. It is normally used when patients do not have symptoms of seizure and EEG is required prior to having PET scan.
  • Functional mapping. This test is usually performed in patients with implanted electrodes. It is a painless procedure. After a sufficient number of seizures are recorded, brief electrical stimulation is provided through each electrode separately to determine the normal function of the part of the brain underneath the electrode. The purpose of this test is to map out critically important areas of the brain such as motor, sensory and language functions and to determine if there is any overlap with the seizure-generating regions. This allows neurosurgeons to minimize the risk of major neurological deficits and complications after surgery.
  • Neuropsychological tests and Wada test. Neuropsychological tests involve the assessment of thinking, memory and speech skills by using psychological tools. The test results helps to determine which areas of the brain are affected. Wada test is independent testing of language and memory function. This test is also used to predict post-operative deficits in language and memory function.
  • Continuous EEG monitoring in ICU. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring is increasingly being used for brain monitoring in neurocritical care setting. Recent clinical researches reveal that critical patients with impaired consciousness and abnormal brain electrical activity are prone to develop seizure up to 40%. The damage of the brain results in serious complications such as long-term disability. However, patients might not manifest tonic-clonic seizure, continuous EEG monitoring is used as a standard practice. Following US guidelines, consensus statement of continuous EEG in patients with altered level of consciousness includes:
    • If alteration of consciousness is less than 24 hours, continuous EEG monitoring must be provided 48-72 hours.
    • If alteration of consciousness is more than 48 hours, continuous EEG monitoring must be provided at least 3-5 days.

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Diagnosis of atrial septal defect

Tests and procedures to diagnose atrial septal defect include:

Small defects in children may not exhibit signs and symptoms and it may be found incidentally during annual health check-ups. Predominant sign detected by cardiologists is heart murmur, a whooshing sound that can be heard through a stethoscope. Presenting symptoms might include shortness of breath, tiring easily especially after activity, heart palpitations or skipped beats. In some cases, stroke-related symptoms might be presented. Atrial septal defects can be categorized into several types.  Secundum atrial septal defect is the most common type, accounts for 75% of all cases. The hole of secundum atrial septal defect occurs in the middle of the wall between the atria (atrial septum).

  • Listening to the heart using a stethoscope.
  • An echocardiogram. During echocardiogram, sound waves are used to produce a video image of the heart. It allows the cardiologists to view heart’s chambers and measure their pumping strength. There are 2 common types of echocardiogram
    1. Transthoracic Echocardiogram: During performing this test, the probe (or ultrasonic transducer) is placed on the chest or abdomen of the patient to get various views of the heart. Although no diagnose atrial septal preparation is required, this diagnostic test might not be suitable in patients with thick chest wall or abnormal anatomy of chest wall.
    2. Transesophageal Echocardiogram: A specialized probe containing an ultrasound transducer at its tip is passed into the patient’s esophagus which runs behind the windpipe (trachea) and heart. Moving images of the heart can be viewed, allowing cardiologists to diagnosed accurately.

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5 Tips For Coping With Air Pollution PM2.5

In Thailand, particularly in Bangkok and surrounding areas, a cloud of ultra-fine dust particles known as PM2.5 has recently returned. According to the Pollution Control Department (PCD), the concentration of PM2.5 pollutants should not exceed the PCD’s safe threshold of 50 µg/m³. If the number is greater than this threshold level, these fine particulate matters can substantially cause a wide range of health problems including respiratory disease and heart disease. Avoidance of pollution exposure greatly helps to prevent health related conditions caused by PM2.5.

5 Tips for coping with PM2.5

1) Wearing N95 Masks Every Time During Exposure To The Environment

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2) Avoidance Of Leaving The Building If Unnecessary

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3) Open Air Activities Should Be Avoided Or Limited. If Necessary, Duration Of Activities Must Be As Short As Possible And N95 Masks Must Be Worn At All Times.

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4) Staying Healthy And Taking Good Care Of Respiratory System E.G. Prevention Of Flu, Bronchitis And Sinusitis.

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5) Being Aware Of Abnormal Signs And Symptoms. If Any Symptoms Present, Immediate Medical Attention Must Be Sough.

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In addition, young children, elderly people and people with certain underlying diseases are susceptible to get sick due to this air pollution. Therefore, special attention and care must be provided.

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When Should Hair Loss Be Taken Seriously?

19 Causes of Hair Loss, How to Treat It |

When Should Hair Loss Be Taken Seriously?

Stages of hair growth can be categorized into the growing, resting, and transition phases. Under normal circumstances, it is possible to lose anywhere between 120-160 strands of hair a day. If you experience excessive hair loss it can be an indication of an abnormality within the scalp, symptoms of which may include itchiness, redness, flakes, and pus. If you experience any of the aforementioned a visit to a specialist is recommended.

Thinning Of Hair Can Be Caused By A Number Of Factors

Taken Physical Aspects

Hair loss can be caused by thyroid problems, specifically excessive or redundant function of the thyroid glands. It can be also be caused by allergic reactions, a preexisting skin condition that may disrupt hair growth or lead to infections of the scalp that may be bacterial or viral. These can stem growth and cause excessive hair loss. Once causes are identified and treated hair growth can slowly be restored to a normal rate.

Certain Medication and Supplements may contribute to Hair loss

These may include medication for cholesterol, acne medication that contain artificial vitamins, cancer medication, immunotherapy medication, arthritis medication, stress medication, and certain types of hypertension medication. Hair loss can also be caused by over-consumption of certain vitamins that your body does not require. Normal hair growth can(and loss) often be restored once consumption of these medication or vitamin supplements are ceased.


Can Stress Contribute To Hair Loss?

Our hair is definitely sensitive to our emotional state.

  • Stress for the hair – can refer to physical stress such as injury, trauma, use of certain hair products, dying hair color with chemicals, perming or straightening the hair. Excessive exercise, long-distance traveling, can also be contributing factors to hair loss.
  • Emotional stress such as worry is a major cause of chronic hair loss and can be difficult to remedy. Many individuals may also be directly contributing to their hair, but without being aware of doing so. loss This is a common in children and teens who experience stress. This “pulling” can cause permanent scalp damage and can be difficult to treat.

*Therapy may require a combination of a hair loss specialist and a psychologist, who can help the afflicted individual to develop healthier strategies for dealing with stress.

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5 Natural Remedies For Acid Reflux

Acid reflux can go from mild to chronic in a very short period of time. There are medications than can help manage the symptoms of acid reflux, such as antacids. However, they aren’t necessary, because there are many natural remedies that are simple and easy to use.

The following remedies can be used to remedy acid reflux as well as heartburn, a symptom of acid reflux. Eliminating trigger foods is also helpful when trying to eliminate acid reflux. In some cases, stress is also thought be a trigger, so try slowing down and relaxing while eating to help eliminate any potential triggers.

1. Apple Cider Vinegar

One of the causes of acid is an excess amount of acidity in the stomach. Excess acidity in the stomach can be caused by eating a diet high in sugary foods, since sugar is acid-forming. Drinking 1-3 tablespoons a day of raw apple cider vinegar can help reduce the amount of acidity in the stomach.

It may seem counterintuitive to drink something that tastes acidic when there is already too much acid in the stomach; however, apple cider vinegar is alkaline-forming, because the body doesn’t need to produce much stomach acid to digest it. This means that it can neutralize acidity. Drinking apple cider vinegar before meals also helps start the digestion process for a better breakdown of food and better absorption. Lastly, apple cider vinegar contains enzymes that help with digestion. Better digestion can help prevent acid reflux.

2. Lemon

One of the many benefits of lemons is its ability to help eliminate acid reflux. Lemons, like apple cider vinegar, are also alkaline-forming, although they taste sour. In this way, lemons also help neutralize acidity in the stomach. Try drinking one tablespoon of freshly squeezed lemon juice about 10 minutes before a meal to help prevent acid. Lemon juice can also help existing acid reflux; simply drink a tablespoon of lemon juice first thing in the morning, one before lunch and one before dinner.

3. Ginger

This invigorating root is a fantastic option to help remedy acid reflux. Chew peeled ginger, drink ginger tea or use ginger lozenges to reap the benefits. Ginger stimulates the digestive system to produce more enzymes and secrete more bile for better digestion. Food that is not properly broken down during digestion can cause indigestion; for this reason, enzymes can be extremely beneficial.

4. Aloe Vera

This powerful plant has a wide variety of uses and is a top favorite of many herbalists. Aloe vera is very beneficial in cases of acid reflux, because it can soothe irritated tissue and fight inflammation. Aloe vera also helps with digestion. Blend the clear gel and the translucent flesh of the aloe vera leaf with some orange juice as a healthy breakfast drink. This mix can help prevent acid reflux and can also be used to soothe existing symptoms such as an irritated and inflamed esophagus. The outer part of aloe leaves contain a powerful laxative, so be sure to use a formula that excludes that portion.

5. Enzymes

Eating plenty of enzyme-rich foods can not only help with acid reflux but also help you improve digestion and lose weight in a healthy manner. Enzymes are compounds that help with the breakdown of food. This is important so that nutrients can be absorbed and used.
Humans manufacture enzymes, but organ deficiencies and certain health issues can lead to a deficit of enzyme production. Eating enzyme-rich foods can help acid reflux. Enzyme-rich foods include ginger, papaya, pineapple, raw nuts, raw vegetables and other raw fruits.
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Basal body temperature for natural family planning

Natural Family Planning can be hard and expensive to use. Can new tech  help? | America Magazine

The basal body temperature method — a fertility awareness-based method — is a type of natural family planning. Your basal body temperature is your temperature when you’re fully at rest. Ovulation may cause a slight increase in basal body temperature.

You’ll be most fertile during the two to three days before your temperature rises. By tracking your basal body temperature each day, you may be able to predict when you’ll ovulate. In turn, this may help you determine when you’re most likely to conceive.

If you’re hoping to get pregnant, you can use the basal body temperature method to determine the best days to have sex. Similarly, if you’re hoping to avoid pregnancy, you can use the basal body temperature method to help determine which days to avoid unprotected sex.

Because the basal body temperature method alone doesn’t provide enough warning time to effectively prevent pregnancy, it’s generally used in combination with other fertility awareness-based methods if you’re hoping to avoid pregnancy.

Why it’s done

Basal body temperature can be used as a way to predict fertility or as a part of a method of contraception, by helping you gauge the best days to have or avoid unprotected sex. Tracking your basal body temperature for either fertility or contraception is inexpensive and doesn’t have any side effects. Some women may choose to use the basal body temperature method for religious reasons.

The basal body temperature methods can also be used to detect pregnancy. Following ovulation, a rise in basal body temperature that lasts for 18 or more days may be an early indicator of pregnancy.

The basal body temperature methods is often combined with another method of natural family planning, such as the cervical mucus method. This combination is sometimes referred to as the symptothermal method.


Using the basal body temperature method to promote fertility doesn’t pose any risks.

Likewise, using the basal body temperature methods for birth control doesn’t pose any direct risks, but it doesn’t offer protection from sexually transmitted infections — and it’s one of the least effective natural family planning methods. As many as 24 out of 100 women who use fertility awareness-based methods to prevent pregnancy — such as the basal body temperature method — for one year will get pregnant.

Using the basal body temperature along with another fertility awareness-based method for birth control requires motivation and diligence. If you don’t want to conceive, you and your partner must avoid having sex or use a barrier method of contraception during your fertile days each month.

Keep in mind that your basal body temperature can be influenced by many factors, including:

  • Illness or fever
  • Stress
  • Shift work
  • Interrupted sleep cycles or oversleeping
  • Alcohol
  • Travel and time zone differences
  • Gynecologic disorders
  • Certain medications

Some women also ovulate without a clear rise in basal body temperature.

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Common Summer Illness In Children That You Should Watch Out For

Allergic rhinitis in children - Family Health DiaryWe all want the summer months to be a time of fun and laughter for the little ones. However, just like winter months come with cold and flu, summer months bring few illnesses that we should all watch out for and protect our children.

              If you are aware of the various risk factors of summer season, you can take preventative measures and let your children enjoy the vacation to the fullest.

Gastrointestinal Disease

Diarrhea and food poisoning :

The leading cause is consumption of contaminated food or water as it spreads bacteria, viruses, and toxins. Diarrhea is common in babies and food poisoning is common in school-aged children.


stomach pain, watery diarrhea, and vomiting. If it is serious, patients might have bloody diarrhea. This requires immediate medical attention as antibiotic is needed for the treatment.


Drink plenty of water or oral rehydration solution. Symptomatic treatment includes medications to relieve the pain and to ease nausea. In young children, milk should be avoided until diarrhea stops.


Teach everyone in your family to wash their hands thoroughly and often, especially after using the bathroom and before touching food. Use perishable food or any food with an expiration date as soon as possible.

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What Is Lazy Eye?

How can I treat my lazy eye (query) |

Amblyopia or lazy eye occurs when the vision of one eye is weakened by the brain suppressing or ignoring its images and favoring the other eye. Babies are not born with good vision in each eye. Instead, they must develop it between the time of birth till 7 years of age by regularly using each eye, where an identical focused image falls on the retina of each eye. If this does not occur in one or both eyes, vision will not develop properly. Instead, vision will be reduced and the affected eye becomes amblyopic. Therefore, it is important to detect this condition early to prevent permanent vision loss.

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Lazy Eye Can Lead To Blindness If Untreated

Amblyopia: Lazy eye symptoms and treatment | All About Vision

Although you have probably heard of the term “lazy eye or amblyopia” before, a lot of parents do not know much about this condition. It is estimated that 3 to 5% of the general population suffers from this form of visual impairment. If not treated early, an amblyopic eye may never develop good vision and may even become functionally blind. With early diagnosis and treatment, the sight in the lazy eye can be restored.

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