4 เว็บไซต์ช่วยเลือกชุดสี

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4. www.colorcombos.com

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Churg-Strauss syndrome

Image result for Churg-Strauss syndrome

Churg Strauss syndrome is a disorder marked by blood vessel inflammation. This inflammation can restrict blood flow to organs and tissues, sometimes permanently damaging them. This condition is also known as eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA).

Asthma is the most common sign of Churg-Strauss syndrome. The disorder can also cause other problems, such as hay fever, rash, gastrointestinal bleeding, and pain and numbness in your hands and feet.

Churg-Strauss syndrom is rare and has no cure. Your doctor can usually help you control symptoms with steroids and other powerful immunosuppressant drugs.

Symptoms
Churg-Strauss syndrome varies greatly from person to person. Some people have only mild symptoms. Others have severe or life-threatening complications.

Also known as EGPA, the syndrome tends to occur in three stages and gets progressively worse. Almost everyone with the condition has asthma, chronic sinusitis and elevated counts of white blood cells called eosinophils. Asthma usually begins five to nine years before the diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome.

Other signs and symptoms might include:

Hay fever
Fever
Loss of appetite and weight loss
Joint and muscle pain
Fatigue
Cough
Abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding
Weakness, fatigue or a general feeling of being unwell
Rash or skin sores
Pain, numbness and tingling in your hands and feet
Severe abdominal pain
Shortness of breath
Blood in your urine or stools
When to see a doctor
See your doctor if you develop signs and symptoms such as breathing difficulties or a runny nose that doesn’t go away, especially if it’s accompanied by persistent facial pain. Also see your doctor if you have asthma or hay fever that suddenly worsens.

Churg-Strauss syndrome is rare, and it’s more likely that these symptoms have some other cause. But it’s important that your doctor evaluate them. Early diagnosis and treatment improve the chances of a good outcome.

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Anhidrosis is the inability to sweat normally.

Image result for anhidrosis

Anhidrosis is the inability to sweat normally. When you don’t sweat (perspire), your body can’t cool itself, which can lead to overheating and sometimes to heatstroke — a potentially fatal condition.

Anhidrosis — sometimes called hypohidrosis — can be difficult to diagnose. Mild anhidrosis often goes unrecognized. Dozens of factors can cause the condition, including skin trauma and certain diseases and medications. You can inherit anhidrosis or develop it later in life.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of anhidrosis include:

  • Little or no perspiration
  • Dizziness
  • Muscle cramps or weakness
  • Flushing
  • Feeling hot

A lack of perspiration can occur:

  • Over most of your body (generalized)
  • In a single area
  • In scattered patches

Areas that can sweat may try to produce more perspiration, so it’s possible to sweat profusely on one part of your body and very little or not at all on another. Anhidrosis that affects a large portion of your body prevents proper cooling, so vigorous exercise, hard physical work and hot weather can cause heat cramps, heat exhaustion or even heatstroke.

Anhidrosis can develop on its own or as one of several signs and symptoms of another condition, such as diabetes or skin injury.

When to see a doctor

If you barely sweat, even when it’s hot or you’re working or exercising strenuously, talk to your doctor. Talk to your doctor if you notice you’re sweating less than usual.

Causes

Anhidrosis occurs when your sweat glands don’t function properly, either as a result of a condition you’re born with (congenital condition) or one that affects your nerves or skin. Dehydration also can cause anhidrosi. Sometimes the cause of anhidrosis can’t be found.

Causes of anhidrosis include:

  • Conditions you’re born with, such as certain congenital dysplasias that affect the development of sweat glands
  • Inherited conditions that affect your metabolic system, such as Fabry’s disease
  • Connective tissue diseases, such as Sjogren’s syndrome, which causes dry eyes and mouth
  • Skin damage, such as from burns or radiation therapy, or diseases that clog your pores (poral occlusion), such as psoriasis
  • Conditions that cause nerve damage (neuropathy), such as diabetes, alcoholism and Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Certain drugs, such as morphine and botulinum toxin type A, and those used to treat psychosis

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Risk factors fecal incontinence

Image result for fecal incontinence

A number of factors may increase your risk of developing fecal incontinence, including:

  • Age. Although fecal incontinence can occur at any age, it’s more common in adults over 65.
  • Being female. Fecal incontinence can be a complication of childbirth. Recent research has also found that women who take menopausal hormone replacement therapy have a modest increased risk of fecal incontinence.
  • Nerve damage. People who have long-standing diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or back trauma from injury or surgery may be at risk of fecal incontinence, as these conditions can damage nerves that help control defecation.
  • Dementia. Fecal incontinences is often present in late-stage Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.
  • Physical disability. Being physically disabled may make it difficult to reach a toilet in time. An injury that caused a physical disability also may cause rectal nerve damage, leading to fecal incontinences.

Complications

Complications of fecal incontinences may include:

  • Emotional distress. The loss of dignity associated with losing control over one’s bodily functions can lead to embarrassment, shame, frustration and depression. It’s common for people with fecal incontinences to try to hide the problem or to avoid social engagements.
  • Skin irritation. The skin around the anus is delicate and sensitive. Repeated contact with stool can lead to pain and itching, and potentially to sores (ulcers) that require medical treatment.

Prevention

Depending on the cause, it may be possible to improve or prevent fecal incontinences. These actions may help:

  • Reduce constipation. Increase your exercise, eat more high-fiber foods and drink plenty of fluids.
  • Control diarrhea. Treating or eliminating the cause of the diarrhea, such as an intestinal infection, may help you avoid fecal incontinence.
  • Avoid straining. Straining during bowel movements can eventually weaken anal sphincter muscles or damage nerves, possibly leading to fecal incontinences.

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Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)

for Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)

A lumbar puncture (spinal tap) is performed in your lower back, in the lumbar region. During a lumbar puncture, a needle is inserted between two lumbar bones (vertebrae) to remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid. This is the fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord to protect them from injury.

A lumbar punctur can help diagnose serious infections, such as meningitis; other disorders of the central nervous system, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome and multiple sclerosis; or cancers of the brain or spinal cord. Sometimes a lumbar punctur is used to inject anesthetic medications or chemotherapy drugs into the cerebrospinal fluid.

Why it’s done
A lumbar puncture may be done to:

Collect cerebrospinal fluid for laboratory analysis
Measure the pressure of your cerebrospinal fluid
Inject spinal anesthetics, chemotherapy drugs or other medications
Inject dye (myelography) or radioactive substances (cisternography) into cerebrospinal fluid to make diagnostic images of the fluid’s flow
Information gathered from a lumbar puncture can help diagnose:

Serious bacterial, fungal and viral infections, including meningitis, encephalitis and syphilis
Bleeding around the brain (subarachnoid hemorrhage)
Certain cancers involving the brain or spinal cord
Certain inflammatory conditions of the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis and Guillain-Barre syndrome

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Ichthyosis vulgaris

Image result for Ichthyosis vulgaris

Ichthyosis vulgaris (ik-thee-O-sis vul-GAY-ris) is an inherited skin disorder in which dead skin cells accumulate in thick, dry scales on your skin’s surface.

The scales of ichthyosis vulgaris, sometimes called fish scale disease or fish skin disease, can be present at birth, but usually first appear during early childhood. Sometimes, mild cases of ichthyosis vulgaris go undiagnosed because they’re mistaken for extremely dry skin.

Most cases of ichthyosis vulgaris are mild, but some are severe. Sometimes other skin diseases, such as the allergic skin condition eczema, are associated with ichthyosis vulgari. No cure has been found for ichthyosis vulgari, and treatments focus on controlling the condition.
If you suspect you or your child has ichthyosis vulgari, talk to your family doctor or a dermatologist. He or she can diagnose the condition by examining the characteristic scales.

Also be sure to seek medical advice if the symptoms worsen or don’t improve with self-care measures. You may need stronger medication to manage the condition.

Causes
Ichthyosis vulgaris is commonly caused by a genetic mutation that’s inherited from one or both parents. Children who inherit a defective gene from just one parent have a milder form of the disease. Those who inherit two defective genes have a more severe form of ichthyosis vulgaris. Children with the inherited form of the disorder usually have normal skin at birth, but develop scaling and roughness during the first few years of life.

If genetic abnormalities aren’t responsible for ichthyosis, it’s referred to as acquired ichthyosis. It’s usually associated with other diseases, such as cancer, thyroid disease or HIV/AIDS.

Complications
Some people with ichthyosis may experience:

Overheating. In rare cases, the skin thickness and scales of ichthyosis can interfere with sweating. This can inhibit cooling. In some people, excess sweating (hyperhidrosis) can occur.
Secondary infection. Skin splitting and cracking may lead to infections.

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Vitamin A

Bluebonnet Nutrition, Vitamin A, 10,000

Vitamin A (retinol, retinoic acid) is a nutrient important to vision, growth, cell division, reproduction and immunity. Vitamin A nutrient also has antioxidant properties. Antioxidants are substances that might protect your cells against the effects of free radicals — molecules produced when your body breaks down food or is exposed to tobacco smoke and radiation. Free radicals might play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases.

Vitamin A is found in many foods, such as spinach, dairy products and liver. Other sources are foods rich in beta-carotene, such as green leafy vegetables, carrots and cantaloupe. Your body converts beta-carotene into vitamin A.

As an oral supplement, vitamin A  nutrient  mainly benefits people who have a poor or limited diet or who have a condition that increases the need for vitamin A, such as pancreatic disease, eye disease or measles. If you take vitamin A for its antioxidant properties, keep in mind that the supplement might not offer the same benefits as naturally occurring antioxidants in food.

The recommended daily amount of vitamin A is 900 micrograms (mcg) for adult men and 700 mcg for adult women.

Research on oral vitamin A for specific conditions shows:

  • Acne. Large doses of oral vitamin A  nutrient  supplements don’t appear to affect acne.

  • Age-related macular degeneration. A large clinical trial showed that people at high risk of advanced age-related macular degeneration reduced their risk of developing the condition by 25 percent by taking a specific combination of vitamins that included beta-carotene. It’s not entirely clear what role beta-carotene played.

  • Cancer. The association between use of vitamin A supplements and reduced risk of lung, prostate and other types of cancer is unclear.

  • Measles. Vitamin A supplements are recommended for children with measles who are at an increased risk of vitamin A deficiency. Research suggests that supplementation might reduce death due to measles.

  • Vitamin A deficiency. People who have low levels of vitamin A appear to benefit most from vitamin A supplements. This kind of deficiency isn’t common in the United States. Vitamin A deficiency causes anemia and dry eyes.

Beyond use as an oral supplement, vitamin A is used in topical creams to reduce fine wrinkles, splotches and roughness and treat acne.

Caution

A healthy and varied diet will provide most people with enough vitamin A. If you’re interested in the antioxidant properties of vitamin A, food sources are best. It’s not clear if vitamin A supplements offer the same benefits as naturally occurring antioxidants in food. Too much vitamin A can be harmful and excess vitamin A during pregnancy has been linked to birth defects.

Safety and side effects

Too much vitamin A can be harmful. Even a single large dose — over 200,000 mcg — can cause:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Vertigo
  • Blurry vision

Taking more than 10,000 mcg a day of oral vitamin A supplements long term can cause:

  • Bone thinning
  • Liver damage
  • Headache
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Skin irritation
  • Pain in the joints and bone
  • Birth defects

If you are or might become pregnant, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin A. Excess use of vitamin A during pregnancy has been linked to birth defects.

Interactions

Possible interactions include:

  • Anticoagulants. Oral use of vitamin A supplements while taking these medications used to prevent blood clots might increase your risk of bleeding.
  • Bexarotene (Targretin). Taking vitamin A supplements while using this topical cancer drug increases the risk of the drug’s side effects, such as itchy, dry skin.
  • Hepatotoxic drugs. Taking high doses of vitamin A supplements can cause liver damage. Combining high doses of vitamin A supplements with other drugs that can damage the liver could increase the risk of liver disease.
  • Orlistat (Alli, Xenical). This weight-loss drug can decrease the absorption of food sources of vitamin A. Your doctor might suggest that you take a multivitamin with vitamin A and beta-carotene while taking this medication.
  • Retinoids. Don’t use vitamin A supplements and these oral prescription drugs at the same time. This could increase the risk of high vitamin A blood levels.

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Alcohol: Does it affect blood pressure

Image result for Drinking

Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having more than three drinks in one sitting temporarily raises your blood pressure, but repeated binge drinking can lead to long-term increases.

Moderate drinking is up to one drink a day for women, two for men.
Heavy drinking is more than three drinks a day for women, four for men.
Heavy drinkers who cut back to moderate drinking can lower their top number in a blood pressure reading (systolic pressure) by about 5.5 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and their bottom number (diastolic pressure) by about 4 mm Hg.

If you have high blood pressure, avoid alcohol or drink alcohol only in moderation.

Preventing high blood pressure
Limiting alcohol consumption can also help to prevent high blood pressure.

If you drink, limit your alcohol consumption to no more than two drinks per day for men and no more than one drink per day for women. A drink is one 12 oz. beer, 4 oz. of wine, 1.5 oz. of 80-proof spirits or 1 oz. of 100-proof spirits.

I’ve read that red wine is heart healthy — can I drink as much as I’d like?
Unfortunately, red wine as a miracle drink for heart heath is a myth. The linkage reported in many of these studies may be due to other lifestyle factors rather than alcohol. Like any other dietary or lifestyle choice, it’s a matter of moderation.

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Causes Color blindness

Color blindness

Seeing colors across the light spectrum is a complex process that begins with your eyes’ ability to respond to different wavelengths of light.

Light, which contains all color wavelengths, enters your eye through the cornea and passes through the lens and transparent, jellylike tissue in your eye (vitreous humor) to wavelength-sensitive cells (cones) at the back of your eye in the macular area of the retina. The cones are sensitive to short (blue), medium (green) or long (red) wavelengths of light. Chemicals in the cones trigger a reaction and send the wavelength information through your optic nerve to your brain.

If your eyes are normal, you perceive color. But if your cones lack one or more wavelength-sensitive chemicals, you will be unable to distinguish the colors red, green or blue.

Color blindness and light spectrum has several causes:

  • Inherited disorder. Inherited color deficiencies are much more common in males than in females. The most common color deficiency is red-green, with blue-yellow deficiency being much less common. It is rare to have no color vision at all.

    You can inherit a mild, moderate or severe degree of the disorder. Inherited color deficiencies usually affect both eyes, and the severity doesn’t change over your lifetime.

  • Diseases. Some conditions that can cause color deficits are sickle cell anemia, diabetes, macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma, Parkinson’s disease, chronic alcoholism and leukemia. One eye may be more affected than the other, and the color deficit may get better if the underlying disease can be treated.
  • Certain medications. Some medications can alter color vision, such as some drugs that treat certain autoimmune diseases, heart problems, high blood pressure, erectile dysfunction, infections, nervous disorders and psychological problems.
  • Aging. Your ability to see colors deteriorates slowly as you age.
  • Chemicals. Exposure to some chemicals in the workplace, such as carbon disulfide and fertilizers, may cause loss of color vision.

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Risks Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic Resonance Imaging - MRI

Because MRI uses powerful magnets, the presence of metal in your body can be a safety hazard if attracted to the magnet. Even if not attracted to the magnet, metal objects can distort the MRI image. Before having an MRI, you’ll likely complete a questionnaire that includes whether you have metal or electronic devices in your body.

Unless the device you have is certified as MRI safe, you might not be able to have an MRI. Devices include:

Metallic joint prostheses
Artificial heart valves
An implantable heart defibrillator
Implanted drug infusion pumps
Implanted nerve stimulators
A pacemaker
Metal clips
Metal pins, screws, plates, stents or surgical staples
Cochlear implants
A bullet, shrapnel or any other type of metal fragment
Intrauterine device
If you have tattoos or permanent makeup, ask your doctor whether they might affect your MRI. Some of the darker inks contain metal.

Before you schedule an MRI, tell your doctor if you think you’re pregnant. The effects of magnetic fields on fetuses aren’t well understood. Your doctor might recommend an alternative exam or postponing the MRI. Also tell your doctor if you’re breast-feeding, especially if you’re to receive contrast material during the procedure.

It’s also important to discuss kidney or liver problems with your doctor and the technologist, because problems with these organs might limit the use of injected contrast agents during your scan.

Because MRI uses powerful magnets

Because MRI uses powerful magnets

Before an MRI exam, eat normally and continue to take your usual medications, unless otherwise instructed. You will typically be asked to change into a gown and to remove things that might affect the magnetic imaging, such as:

Jewelry
Hairpins
Eyeglasses
Watches
Wigs
Dentures
Hearing aids
Underwire bras
Cosmetics that contain metal particles
What you can expect
During the test
The MRI machine looks like a long narrow tube that has both ends open. You lie down on a movable table that slides into the opening of the tube. A technologist monitors you from another room. You can talk with the person by microphone.

If you have a fear of enclosed spaces (claustrophobia), you might be given a drug to help you feel sleepy and less anxious. Most people get through the exam without difficulty.

The MRI machine creates a strong magnetic field around you, and radio waves are directed at your body. The procedure is painless. You don’t feel the magnetic field or radio waves, and there are no moving parts around you.

During the MRI scan, the internal part of the magnet produces repetitive tapping, thumping and other noises. You might be given earplugs or have music playing to help block the noise.

In some cases, a contrast material, typically gadolinium, will be injected through an intravenous (IV) line into a vein in your hand or arm. The contrast material enhances certain details. Gadolinium rarely causes allergic reactions.

An MRI can last anywhere from 15 minutes to more than an hour. You must hold still because movement can blur the resulting images.

During a functional MRI, you might be asked to perform a number of small tasks — such as tapping your thumb against your fingers, rubbing a block of sandpaper or answering simple questions. This helps pinpoint the portions of your brain that control these actions.

After the test
If you haven’t been sedated, you can resume your usual activities immediately after the scan.

Results
A doctor specially trained to interpret MRIs (radiologist) will analyze the images from your scan and report the findings to your doctor. Your doctor will discuss important findings and next steps with you.

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